Diabetes : Symptoms, treatment, and diagnosis

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What Is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that causes high blood sugar. The hormone insulin moves sugar from the blood into your cells to be stored or use for energy. It is caused when your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t effectively use the insulin it does make. Pancreas make the insulin in our body.

Types

Three major diabetes types can develop: Type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Type I diabetes: This type occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. It is an autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks and destroys cells in the pancreas. It’s unclear what causes this attack.

People with type 1 diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.

Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did.

Insulin allows the glucose from a person’s food to access the cells in their body to supply energy. Insulin resistance is usually a result of the following cycle:

  1. A person has genes or an environment that make it more likely that they are unable to make enough insulin to cover how much glucose they eat.
  2. The body tries to make extra insulin to process the excess blood glucose.
  3. The pancreas cannot keep up with the increased demands, and the excess blood sugar starts to circulate in the blood, causing damage.
  4. Over time, insulin becomes less effective at introducing glucose to cells, and blood sugar levels continue to rise.

Gestational diabetes: This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body can become less sensitive to insulin. Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth.

Symptoms of Diabetes

The general symptoms are:

  • increased hunger
  • increased thirst
  • weight loss
  • blurry vision
  • extreme fatigue
  • sores that don’t heal
  • itiching
  • frequent urination
  • Type 2 is daignosed by glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test . This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Results are interpreted as follows:
  • Below 5.7% is normal.
  • 5.7% to 6.4% is diagnosed as prediabetes.
  • 6.5% or higher on two separate tests indicates diabetes.

If the A1C test isn’t available, or if you have certain conditions that interfere with an A1C test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:

Random blood sugar test. Blood sugar values is expressed in milligrams of sugar per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles of sugar per liter (mmol/L) of blood. Regardless of when you last ate, a level of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially if you also have signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst.

Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. Results are interpreted as follows:

  • Less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal.
  • 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is diagnosed as prediabetes.
  • 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests is diagnosed as diabetes.

What to do next after having diabetes?

You should consult your doctor and make a healthy diet plan from dietitian.

Prevention

To help prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications, people should:

  • achieve and maintain a healthy body weight;
  • eat a healthy diet, avoiding sugar and saturated fats;
  • be physically active – doing at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity activity on most days. Physical activity for weight control; and
  • avoid tobacco use – smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular and kidney disease.

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