Kidney Failure : Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment


The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage, one on each side of your spine.

Healthy kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra water to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of your bladder. Your bladder stores urine. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are part of your urinary tract.


When your kidneys are damaged, they may not work as well as they are supposed to work. If the damage to your kidneys continues to get worse and your kidneys are not able to do their job, you have chronic kidney disease. Kidney failure is the last (most severe) stage of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, kidney failure is also called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD for short.

In most cases, kidney failure is caused by other health problems that have done permanent damage (harm) to your kidneys over a period.

Diabetes is the most common cause of ESRD. High blood pressure is the second most common cause of ESRD. Other problems that can cause kidney failure include:

  • Autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and IgA nephropathy
  • Genetic diseases (diseases you are born with), such as polycystic kidney disease
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Urinary tract problems

Sometimes the kidneys can stop working very suddenly (within two days). This type of kidney failure is called acute kidney injury or acute renal failure or Chronic kidney disease (Ckd). Common causes of acute renal failure include:

Common causes of acute renal failure include:

  • Heart attack
  • Illegal drug use and drug abuse
  • Not enough blood flowing to the kidneys
  • Urinary tract problems

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

In the early stage of kidney failure, you may notice many signs which alert you for any serious health problem

Initial stage of failure you may notice below symptoms

  • Vomiting
  • Dry, Itching Skin
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling sleepy
  • Too much urine or less urine
  • Swelling in feet

Next Stage symptoms

As well as above symptoms below symptoms will be also shown up in body

  • Muscle cramps
  • Blood blister
  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Back pain
  • Sleep problems
  • BP fluctuation 
  • Shortness of breath 

What are the treatment options for kidney failure?

Based on the stage of kidney disease your doctor will start the treatment, one of the end stage renal failure treatment is Dialysis.

Why Dialysis?

Kidney is a very important organ of humans when it is damaged it does not filter blood properly, will not remove wastes and extra fluid, control blood pressure, Make red blood cells.

Creatinine level: When the kidney starts damaging creatinine level in the blood starts increasing which causes dry & itching skin, swelling, fatigue….

Creatinine is a waste product formed by the normal breakdown of muscle cells. Healthy kidneys take creatine out of the blood and put it into the urine to leave the body. When the kidneys are not working well, creatinine builds up in the blood.

Normal levels of creatinine in the blood are approximately 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dL) in adult males and 0.5 to 1.1 milligrams per decilitre in adult females.

When dialysis treatment starts the machine will start doing the job of the kidney and start removing waste from your body. Based on your kidney functionality your doctor will decide  the no. of times dialysis you have to do in a week. 

Type of dialysis

  • Hemodialysis
  • Peritoneal dialysis

How does it help?

In dialysis treatment you must change your lifestyle for better results, your doctor will suggest you a proper diet plan which can help you to live long.

After each dialysis session you will start seeing below changes

  • Proper sleep
  • Less itching 
  • Less fatigue
  • Feel refresh
  • Keeps a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate
  • dialysis keeps your body in balance by removing waste, salt, and extra water

How to Save your Kidney?

  • Monitor blood pressure
  • Control your blood sugar
  • Keep active and fit
  • Monitor weight and eat a healthy diet
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Don’t smoke
  • Add fibre in your diet
  • Regular do Kidney Function test 


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